What is KNOW-NOx™ and what solutions do we offer?

Know-NOx is a company created by Dr. Robert Richardson of Pacific Rim Design and Development. We specialize in and focus solely on NOx abatement issues. We offer a comprehensive package of services as a “buffet”.  Clients are required to choose quality control and project management services and may also choose as many of the other services as they like. We provide everything from initial site studies to solutions to regulatory compliance issues that result in an optimized solution for each of our client’s individual’s needs.  We are unique. We are successful at the development of solutions which are applicable over a wide range of air quality applications because we think outside the box.


What industries do we serve?

Chemical milling companies, small power plants, glass plants, metal finishing companies, pharmaceutical plants and anyone who needs NOx/SOx abatement solutions!


Where do our clients come from?

In many cases, our clients come to us because conventional solutions have not worked. Many of our clients are referred to us by equipment manufacturers and engineers and consultants that do not have a conventional solution to offer.


What is NOx?

NOx is a generic term for mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide).  NOx is a reactive gaseous compound that is one of the criteria air pollutants regulated by the USEPA Clean Air Act. NOx is produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion; especially at high temperatures. Nitric oxide (NO) is colorless and essentially odorless. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish-brown gas with a pungent smell. NOx (NO & NO2) can irritate the lungs, cause bronchitis and pneumonia, and lower resistance to respiratory infections. NOx is also a precursor to the formation of ground level ozone (smog) and a contributor to acid rain.

In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere as air pollution can be significant. NOx gases are formed everywhere where there is combustion – like in an engine. In atmospheric chemistry, the term means the total concentration of NO and NO2.

NOx should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas and has many uses as an oxidizer, an anesthetic, and a food additive.


What is SOx?

SOx refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc.  Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a pungent, irritating odor and taste. It is highly soluble in water forming weakly acidic sulphurous acid. When sulfur dioxide combines with the oxygen (O2) in the air some sulfur trioxide is slowly formed. Sulfur trioxide rapidly combines with water to produce sulfuric acid.

Sulfur dioxide can harm crops and trees, textiles, building materials, animals, and people either as a result of exposure to long-term low concentrations or short-term high concentrations. It turns leaves yellow and decreases the growth rate of crops. Sulfur dioxide corrodes metal, and causes building materials and textiles to deteriorate and weaken.

Sulfur dioxide irritates the throat and lungs and, if there are fine dust particles in the air, can damage a person's respiratory system. Sulfur oxides combine with other substances in the air to produce a haze that reduces visibility. Sulfur dioxide is a major contributor to acid deposition.

In 2012, EPA took final action to retain the current secondary standard for SO2 of 500 ppb averaged over three hours, not to be exceeded more than once per year.


What are VOC’s?

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapor pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. VOCs are sometimes accidentally released into the environment, where they can damage soil and groundwater.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a VOC as any organic compound that participates in a photoreaction; others believe this definition is very broad and vague as organics that are not volatile in the sense that they vaporize under normal conditions can be considered volatile by this EPA definition. The term may refer both to well characterized organic compounds and to mixtures of variable composition.

VOCs are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous. They include both human-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds.  Some VOCs are dangerous to human health or cause harm to the environment. Anthropogenic VOCs are regulated by law, especially indoors, where concentrations are the highest. Harmful VOCs are typically not acutely toxic, but instead have compounding long-term health effects.


What are PM’s?

"Particulate matter," also known as particle pollution or PM, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen with the naked eye. Others are so small they can only be detected using an electron microscope.

They can adversely affect human health and also have impacts on climate and precipitation.  Read more about Particulate Matter:  FAST FACTS


What is BACT?

Best available control technology (BACT) is a pollution control standard mandated by the United States Clean Air Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines what air pollution control technology will be used to control a specific pollutant to a specified limit. When a BACT is determined, factors such as energy consumption, total source emission, regional environmental impact, and economic costs are taken into account. It is the current EPA standard for all polluting sources that fall under the New Source Review guidelines and is determined on a case-by-case basis.

The BACT standard is significantly more stringent than the Reasonably Available Control Technology standard but much less stringent than the lowest achievable control technology standard.


What is MACT?

The EPA developed Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards, or MACT standards, to reduce the effects of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) generated by industry. The standards for a particular source category require the maximum degree of emission reduction that the EPA determines to be achievable, which is known as the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) . These standards are authorized by Section 112 of the Clean Air Act and the regulations are published in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63.

MACT standards affect sources (new and old) by making them meet specific emissions limits. These limits are based on the emissions levels already achieved by the best-performing similar facilities.

The EPA develops MACT standards specific to each source category.


What is RACT?

Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) is a pollution control standard created by the EPA and is used to determine what air pollution control technology will be used to control a specific pollutant to a specified limit. RACT applies to existing sources in areas that are not meeting national ambient air quality standards on controlled air pollutants and is required on all sources that meet these criteria.

The RACT standard is less stringent than either the Best Available Control Technology or the Lowest Achievable Control Technology standard set forth by the EPA.


What is LAER?

Lowest Achievable Emissions Rate is used by the EPA to determine if emissions from a new or modified major stationary source are acceptable under SIP guidelines.

"LAER" standards are required when a new, stationary source is located in a non-attainment air-quality region. It is the most stringent air pollution standard above the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) standards.


What is Cl02?

Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. This yellowish-green gas crystallizes as bright orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching. We use TRUE Chlorine Dioxide. The chemical differences between the three types are dramatic. True chlorine dioxide (ClO2)o is dramatically more effective at removing NOx than is chlorite (ClO2)¯ .



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